Charie Brown

2015 March

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Charie Brown

2015 Feburuary

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《花生漫畫》西元2015年二月/”Peanuts” on Feb. 1, 2015
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《花生漫畫》西元2015年二月/”Peanuts” on Feb. 8, 2015
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查理布朗第六集下/ Charlie Brown Vol. 6

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crash course/速成課程

Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9/美國政治的起源

00:00:00,000 – 00:00:06,480
Hi, I’m John Green, and this is Crash Course U.S. History, and now that we have a Constitution, it’s actually United States history.
您好,我是約翰.格林,這是「速成課程美國歷史」,現在我們談到美國憲法,也就是美國歷史。

00:00:06,490 – 00:00:08,690
Today we’re going to look at the birth of
America’s pastime.
今天我們要看的是美國娛樂的誕生。

00:00:08,690 – 00:00:12,170
No, Stan, not baseball.
Not football. Not eating.
不是斯坦,不是棒球。不是橄欖球,跟吃的沒有關係。

00:00:12,170 – 00:00:17,990
I mean politics, which in America has been adversarial since its very beginnings, despite what the founders wanted.
我說的是政治,打從一開始美國人就對它有種反感,雖然一些美國建國者想要擁有政治,卻不被人家放在考慮之中。

00:00:17,990 – 00:00:26,950
[Theme Music]
[主題曲]

00:00:26,950 – 00:00:32,390
We looked at the first big conflict in American politics last week: Constitution or Articles of Confederation?
上個禮拜我們看過美國政治上的第一次大衝突:是「憲法」呢,還是「十三州邦聯憲法」(美國第一部憲法)?

00:00:32,390 – 00:00:37,170
I hope that I convinced you we made the correct choice, but regardless, we made it; the constitution passed.
我希望我已說服了您們,我們所做的選擇是正確的,無論怎麼說,「憲法」被通過。

00:00:37,170 – 00:00:41,390
But immediately following the passage of the constitution a pretty fundamental conflict came up:
憲法通過之後「一個相當基本的衝突」就馬上出現:

00:00:41,390 – 00:00:43,350
what kind of a country should we be?
我們[美國]應該像個怎麼樣的國家呢?

00:00:43,350 – 00:00:44,540
Mr Green, Mr Green!
格林先生!格林先生!

00:00:44,540 – 00:00:50,400
The US is supposed to be the policeman of the world and keep the people in the green parts of Not-America from hurting themselves.
美國的角色扮演著像一位「世界性的警察」,保護那些住在「綠色而又非屬美國的地區」幫助他們免於傷害自身。

00:00:50,400 – 00:00:53,940
Oh, Me From The Past, we don’t get into
that stuff until 1823.
哦,我們那時候還沒啦,要到1823年以後才開始扮演那種角色。

00:00:53,950 – 00:00:57,100
[Patriotic Rock Music]
[帶有愛國情操的搖滾音樂]

00:00:57,100 – 00:01:05,100
So, one vision of America was put forward by Alexander Hamilton, who’d served in the war as Washington’s top aide and would go on to be his first Secretary of the Treasury
其中的一個美國對未來的冀望目標是由亞歷山大·漢密爾頓所提出,漢密爾頓他是戰時華盛頓的高級助手,後來又擔任第一任財政部長

00:01:05,100 – 00:01:09,360
and probably would have been President himself,
had he not been born in the British West Indies.
要不是因為他出生在英屬西印度群島的話
他還可能已經當總統了

00:01:09,360 – 00:01:18,300
Hamilton had a strong personality, and as you can see, the beautiful wavy hair of a Caribbean god, and he had very definite ideas about what he wanted the future of America to look like:
漢密爾頓的個性很強、然後您看他有一頭像加勒比神波浪型的美髮、還有他有很清楚的答案美國對未來冀望的目標是什麼:

00:01:18,300 – 00:01:23,880
First, Hamilton wanted the country to be mercantile, which means that he believed that we should be deeply involved in world trade.
首先,漢密爾頓認為美國應該是個從事商貿易的國家、換句話說他認為我們國家應多多參與世界貿易

00:01:23,880 – 00:01:26,520
Second, he wanted the U.S. to be a manufacturing
powerhouse.
其次,他認為美國是一個製造業的大國。

00:01:26,530 – 00:01:29,340
We wouldn’t just buy and sell stuff; we
would make it too.
我們不光做買賣而已而且還會自己生產

00:01:29,340 – 00:01:35,200
He even invested in a plan to make Patterson, New Jersey, a manufacturing hub, which of course ultimately failed, because New Jersey.
他甚至投資計劃將新澤西州的帕特森成為製造業的中心樞紐、後來這個計劃完全失敗了當然啦因為新澤西州

00:01:35,200 – 00:01:40,220
But to make a manufacturing giant, he needed a strong government that could build infrastructure and protect patents.
但是要成為一個工業巨子得須要有一個強大的政府幫忙建築基礎設施、和保護專利權

00:01:40,220 – 00:01:44,680
But you already knew that he was in favor of a strong government because, of course, he wrote so many of the Federalist Papers.
您已經知道他喜歡一支強有力的政府,當然啦他已經寫過很多聯邦主義者的文章。

00:01:44,680 – 00:01:48,180
Hamilton also envisioned an America that was
governed primarily by the elite.
漢密爾頓還預想美國政治應該是由有錢有勢或有知識能力的人來管理大眾的事。

00:01:48,180 – 00:01:54,340
His party, which came to be known as the Federalist Party, would be the one of “the rich, the able and the well-born.”
他所組織的政治黨派也就是後來成為眾所周知的聯邦主義派、很可能就會是當時最有錢最有能力和出身最有勢力的人所形成的黨派之一。

00:01:54,340 – 00:01:59,640
I mean, just think if the federalist party had survived, we might have had a bunch of like, Bushes and Kennedys as president.
我的意思是假設說聯邦主義者的政治黨派可以持續到今天的話我們[美國]今天就會有很多像布希之類的總統和甘乃迪之類的總統。

00:01:59,640 – 00:02:02,960
Hamilton wanted America to be firmly affiliated
with Great Britain.
漢密爾頓希望美國和大不列顛有緊密連接的附屬關係

00:02:02,960 – 00:02:06,160
Which isn’t surprising, given his passion
for elitism and trade.
基於他支持貿易和中堅固分子的熱誠、想要和大不列顛保持密切的夥伴關係是沒有什麼好奇怪的。

00:02:06,160 – 00:02:10,859
But there was an opposing view of what America should look like, and it is most associated with Thomas Jefferson.
持相反論調的可以說是和托馬士·杰弗遜持類似的主張

00:02:10,859 – 00:02:12,090
Let’s go to the Thought Bubble.
我們去找「泡沫思」

00:02:12,090 – 00:02:18,060
Jefferson wanted an America that was predominantly agrarian, with most people being small scale subsistence level farmers.
杰弗遜他所想的是一個以耕作為主的國家其理想國裏的小規模務農者他們的收入僅足夠滿足自己一身的基本需求

00:02:18,060 – 00:02:22,960
Maybe they would produce a little surplus for local markets, but certainly not for international consumers.
如有多餘的話也僅足以滿足鄰近附近的市場而不是國際性的市場

00:02:22,960 – 00:02:25,320
There would be no international trade.
如果真是這樣的話美國也就不會有今天的國際貿了

00:02:25,329 – 00:02:27,869
And he didn’t want manufacturing either.
還有他也不希望工廠大量製造的方式

00:02:27,869 – 00:02:32,600
This small scale local economy could best
be served by a small scale, local government.
地方政府來管理這種小規模的地方經濟是最恰當不過了。

00:02:32,600 – 00:02:41,480
It’s not a surprise to find that Jefferson’s sympathies lay with the anti-federalists, even though he benefited from the new constitution a little bit, since he eventually got to be president and everything.
杰弗遜有點得到憲法的好處因為後來他被獲選為總統和其它等等的所以你會發現他讚同「反聯邦主義者」這一點是沒什麼奇怪。

00:02:41,480 – 00:02:51,140
Unlike the elitist Hamilton, Jefferson was an avowed democrat, which meant that he distrusted concentrated power and privilege and believed that the masses could basically govern themselves.
杰弗遜宣揚自稱自己是民主主義者、既不相信中央極權也不相信何種特權、他與主張中堅派的漢密爾頓所不同的地方是杰弗遜認為基本上政府的形成是由普通人也就是由一般大眾他們自己管理自己而來的。

00:02:51,140 – 00:02:57,300
To him, government and concentrated economic power were greater threats to liberty than a tyrannical majority.
對於杰弗遜來說,他認為如果是由中央掌權的經濟力量、或是由中央掌權的政府管權的話其危害自由的程度,比起一群殘暴的群眾所能造成的危害自由的程度更嚴重。

高中生傳奇

第一章

JohnGreen
打從我曉得自己的故事不過是一場傳奇,我開始每天會在「印第安納波利斯」[印第安納州的首都]北方的一所名叫「白河高中」的地方吃午餐,那高中是一所公家贊助的機構、然後吃午餐的時間一定要在中午十二點三十七分到一點十四之間、還有我會強迫自己吃一些比我的胃口還多的東西我自己也搞不清楚到底吃到了些什麼。假使整個環境促使我在不同的情況用午餐,或說在餐桌上和我一起談話用午餐的那個人,假設他跟作者我在九月的某一天在餐桌上討論著不同個話題,故事的結尾或故事中間的細節其結果仍然是不會變的。我開始曉得「我的故事」不是我自己感覺我自己的生命是怎麼一回事,而是一場有關於別人描述一些有關於我的故事。製作這故事的人不是我。你一定要用這個角度來看事情。每到十二點三十七分的時候那個無聊的鈴鐺會一成不變地作響、不是我自己決定要去吃午飯而是那個鈴鐺決定該是我去吃飯的時間了。別以為我是位畫家、我是放在畫架上的帆布用來被人家畫的。像河水急速流過石頭的響聲、餐廳裏幾百個人互道喧譁也不過是些聲音而已。圓筒形的吊燈、四射出人造的光芒、我獨坐在燈光下暗想:本以為我們當中的每個人都可以成為一位像私人敘述詩裏的英雄人物;再次正經地思考、心裡反問人到底是些什麼樣東西時、我要說,基本上人們不過是一些有自己味道、可以被辯認得出的一些有機生物體:這種生物體就好像一家沒有門窗的空間、裏面聞起來有豬油加清潔劑的味道。